Monday, 10 November 2014

1. Introduction and recent developments

New: Appendix XIII: Time travel.
Click on the above for some pictures from my flight in the Canadian Lancaster VR-A, August 2014

New: My Lancaster flight 18th August 2014
The full story of that unforgettable experience.


It's nearly two years since I started researching my dad's war years and 18 months since I published what I thought was going to be a single post for the benefit of the family he never knew - he survived the war but died at the age of 55 in 1974. Little did I know at the time that a few requests for help and hours of trawling the internet would yield such a huge amount of information, put me in touch with the families of some of the men who flew alongside my dad and even unearth a photograph of my dad in a Lancaster bomber on his way to an operation over Germany (see Ch. 18).


Sergeant Robert Jay, November 1944.

The downside of publishing a blog like this is the random nature of its posts, published as material comes to light, so I have now arranged the posts into a format that will make it easier to navigate. To access each chapter just click on its title in the list of contents. With the exception of the chapters about Bill Mallon's brothers all the posts are about Bob, his family, his crew and other members of No. 75 (NZ) Squadron. The dates of publication are now merely a device to order the posts and no longer indicate the actual date they were published.

Contents.
  1. Introduction and recent developments
  2. The crew.
  3. Bob Jay - early years & training. 3a. Bob's operational sorties. 3b. The war is over.
  4. Bill Mallon and his brothers
  5. Bill Mallon - early years and his epic journey.
  6. Jim Haworth - letters home.
  7. Jim Haworth - more letters home.
  8. Jim Haworth - his account of a 'Baedeker trip'.
  9. Jim Haworth - navigating at night.
  10. Frank Symes.
  11. Eric Butler.
  12. Lancelot Waugh, Randal Springer & the Milsom crew.
  13. Jack Mallon.
  14. Jack Mallon and 'The Other Few'.
  15. Tom Mallon.
  16. Tom Mallon - "Say not 'goodnight'".
  17. Les Hofert.
  18. Two Lancasters - RF127 & NX611.
  19. Squadron Leader Alban Chipling D.F.C. (RAFVR 108178)
  20. No.75(NZ) Squadron - operations from March - April 1945.
  21. No.75(NZ) Squadron - losses from March - April 1945.

Appeal
Originally planned as my dad's story this blog has now become the story of his crew - or at least his pilot, navigator and wireless operator. To complete the story I need to find out more about the other three crew members:
  • F/O Kenneth Philp** (RNZAF NZ429093), bomb aimer, aged 32 (born 1912 or 1913 in NZ)
  • Sgt Don Cook (RAFVR), mid-upper gunner, aged 20 (born 1924 or 1925) from London (?)
  • Sgt John (or Denis) Eynstone (RAFVR), rear gunner, aged 19 (born 1925 or 1926) from Oxford (?). Recent information from Geoff Swallow in Melbourne suggests John's name was actually Denis, which would explain why he usually appeared in the O.R.B. as D. Eynstone.
 ** After two years I have just realised that the bomb aimer was Ken Philp and NOT Ken Philip! No wonder I have had no success trying to locate his family!

Can anyone help? (my contact details are in 'View my complete profile' below)

Frank Symes
Frank Symes
Just when I was beginning to think I would be unable to find out anything about the remaining members of the crew, I received a short e-mail - "Hello. I am the daughter of Frank. Can I help in any way?" I had been trying for weeks to locate the two Kiwis and two Brits that made up the rest of my dad's crew, and, although the New Zealand Herald was unable to help find the Kiwis, Sarah Lawrance, the P.A. to its Editor in Chief, suggested I contact the New Zealand Woman's Weekly. I did this on the 11th of March 2014 and was rewarded for my efforts just three weeks later.

To be continued in Chapter 10......




Paul Warnault
I rather belatedly contacted Paul Warnault, the former mayor of Guînes, to check the veracity of the information I had written about him in Chapter 13. His son, also called Paul, replied as follows:
  •  Dear Vic,
     I am Paul junior and my father who is now 91 years ask me to tell you that you can use and mention his letters in your blog. I have read the chapter 13 of your blog, all is correct about him.
    Just a small mistake in the translation of his letters. The name of the village is GUÎNES but not GUINESS as the famous bier.
    I can again tell you that he finish as Colonel in the reserve army.
    Find enclosed also picture of the graves of RAF pilots and airmen who rest in peace in our cemetery.
    These graves have always been cleaned, maintained and flowered twice a year.
    As teacher, he has explained and repeated to all his pupils that they must never forget that young brave guys coming from many countries died far from home for our freedom and are buried here at Guînes.
    Best wishes,
    Paul Warnault
I am extremely grateful to Paul for taking the time to reply on behalf of his father and confirm the details of my story, and I know that Jack's nephews appreciate what continues to be done to keep the memory of their uncle alive. Here is the picture that Paul sent, which I have also included in Chapters 4 and 13. It is a recent picture of the graves of Jack Mallon and his crew:


Sources
A huge thank you to all of the following:
I am particularly grateful to Pete and Simon for their help during the writing of this blog and to all the other people who have helped, but most of all I have been overwhelmed by the generosity of the families of my dad's crew.

Thursday, 22 May 2014

2. The crew


The final step in Bob's training, on the 25th November 1944, involved a posting to 1669 Heavy Conversion Unit (H.C.U.) at RAF Langar on the Notts/Leicestershire border. Shortly after arriving he was 'adopted' by an already established crew of four Kiwis and two RAFVR gunners in a process known as 'crewing up' and commenced training as part of a seven-man crew on a Lancaster bomber. His pilot was Flight Sergeant Bill Mallon of the R.N.Z.A.F. and most of the crew will have been together at an Operational Training Unit (O.T.U.) where they had learned to fly two-engined bombers.

F/S Bill Mallon



Here are the crew's details:
  • Pilot/Captain: Flight Sergeant (later Pilot Officer) William (Bill) Mallon (R.N.Z.A.F.) - age 24
  • Navigator: Flight Sergeant James (Jim) Randel Haworth (R.N.Z.A.F.) - age 34
  • Air bomber (bomb aimer): Flying Officer Kenneth Ralph Philp (R.N.Z.A.F.) (the only one with a commission) - age 32
  • Wireless operator: Flight Sergeant Frank Symes (R.N.Z.A.F.) - age 21
  • Rear gunner: Sergeant John (or Denis?) Eynstone (RAFVR) (from Oxford) - age 19
  • Flight engineer: Sergeant Robert Jay (RAFVR) - age 25
  • Mid-upper gunner: Sergeant Don Cook (RAFVR) (from London) - age 20

The other six members of Bob's crew
I was under the misapprehension that Bob was on the left of this picture of his crew, despite my brother's insistence that Bob was holding the camera. I now know, thanks to a copy of the photograph in the possession of Bill's son Barrie, that my brother was correct. The men in the picture are, from left to right:
  • Jim Haworth
  • Don Cook
  • Bill Mallon
  • Frank Symes
  • John/Denis Eynstone
  • Ken Philp
The back of Bill's photograph
 

On the crew's first three operations they had an eighth crew member:
  • Mid-under gunner: Pilot Officer Charles Frederick Green (RAFVR)
After Bob's last 'war op' on the 24th April the crew had a new pilot:
  • Flight Lieutenant Eric Frank Butler (NZ425558), who had completed his first tour with 75(NZ) Squadron in 1941
and a new bomb aimer after the end of May
  • Flying Officer Lancelot Osgood Waugh (NZ429021)
  • Flying Officer O. Willets (NZ425964) replaced Kenneth Ralph as Bomb Aimer on one operation (on 14th April 1945)

On April 4th Bob flew as stand-in Flight Engineer with the following crew, made up of a mixture of RAF, Australian and Rhodesian airmen:
  • F/Lt. I. Taylor (RAFVR) - Captain/Pilot
  • P/O D. Hope (AUS401954) - Navigator
  • W/O J. Tarran (AUS419395) - Bomb Aimer
  • W/O M. King (AUS430036) - Wireless Operator
  • F/S W. Grout (R109214) - Mid-upper Gunner
  • Sgt. E. Franklin (R.A.F.) - Rear Gunner
It is not known why their usual Flight Engineer, Sgt. L Deeprose (RAFVR), was unavailable for this operation having flown on all previous and subsequent operations.


In 2004, at the age of 84, Bill Mallon was interviewed by Martin Halliday as part of the New Zealand Defence Force 'Military Oral History Project'. On June 13th 2013 I acquired a copy of the transcript of this 6 hour conversation and it provides a fascinating insight into the challenges and opportunities faced by trainee pilots, particularly those from the other side of the world, but it is also makes a valuable contribution to the history of New Zealand during the inter-war years and the 'great depression'.

I also discovered the first names of the two British (RAFVR) members of the crew, although John Eynstone's initial appears almost exclusively as 'D' in the squadron's O.R.B. He may have been known as John although his initial was actually 'D', or the O.R.B. may have been completed incorrectly. Either way both Bill and Jim refer to him as John or Johnny and the O.R.B.s were frequently incorrect. Recent information suggests he may have been Denis Eynstone. Here is the entry for the Mallon crew for the Bad Oldesloe operation on the 24th April, 1945.

Note the incorrect initials for Sgts. Jay, Cooke and Eynstone.

So far my research into Bob Jay's war has introduced me to the families of three of his crew, Bill, Jim and Frank but so far, despite messages from the families of several other former 75 (NZ) Squadron members, I have been unsuccessful in my attempts to trace the families of Don, John (Denis?) or Ken.


Wednesday, 30 April 2014

3. Bob Jay - early years & training

Background
Robert Alfred Jay, the youngest of three children, was born on the 3rd April, 1919, 6 months before his dad was demobbed after 4 years in the army and just 2 months before Alcock and Brown's historic trans-Atlantic flight.

Bob at the door of 35, Tyrolean Square, Cobholm, Gt Yarmouth, home of his grandparents

Left to right: Bob, sister Phyllis and brother Fred. Their Aunt Mabel is looking out of the window of 35, Tyrolean Square.

Bob is holding the slate at St John's Infant School, Grimsby in about 1924/5

Bob (middle, front row again) at St. John's School, Grimsby, in about 1929

Bob's mum, Sarah, dad, Fred, and sister, Phyllis

Trying out his bike, about 1931
A bit older, and a bigger bike
A short boxing career! Bob is on the right in the middle row.
Just before going to war
He left school shortly after his 14th birthday and on the 23rd April 1933 he started a seven year apprenticeship with Grimsby Motors.
Bob's apprenticeship indenture - signed 6 months after commencement
He was released a year early, nine days after his 20th birthday, on the 12th April 1939 as a fully qualified motor mechanic and joined the local fire brigade.

Early release, 12th April, 1939

3rd June 1939
Along with all young men of 20 and 21 Bob had to register at the local Ministry of Labour office under the terms of the Military Training Act (1939). This act, passed an the 26th May 1939 in the face of imminent conflict in Europe, required all men born between 4th June 1918 and 3rd June 1919 to register, after which they were to be called up for 6 month's full-time military training, and then transferred to the Reserve. It is not hard to imagine how his parents would have felt having lived through the horrors of the 'Great War'.

To ensure that the call up did not take men away from vital industries and services the Government introduced a "Schedule of Reserved Occupations" - men meeting the age criteria laid out in the schedule were "reserved in their present occupation". As a full-time fireman Bob met the criteria in the schedule and remained in civil life.

1936 Nuremberg Rally


1939-42
Being politically aware Bob had understood the threat posed by fascism since before the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and had followed closely the rise of Hitler in Germany during the 1930s. It was inevitable that he would join the armed forces and play his part at some stage. By 1942 German troops had advanced as far as Stalingrad, the mass murder of Jews was well under way and the Japanese were overwhelming large areas in the Far East. There was wide-spread feeling in Britain that the fight should be taken to the enemy in Europe, rather than appearing to await the outcome of the struggle between Germany and the Soviet Union, and Bob probably saw joining Bomber Command as the way to do this - and maybe he found the prospect of flying quite appealing too.

30th September 1942
As the war progressed there was an increasing need for men and women to join the armed forces and Bob volunteered to join the RAF. He was instructed to attend RAF Padgate, near Warrington where he was assessed and interviewed by No. 10 A.C.S.B. (Aviation Candidate Selection Board). His service record shows that at the end of the process he was "Not recommended for aircrew duties", a decision generally made for 'aptitude, educational or medical' reasons. He therefore remained in civil life.

The reason for this recommendation does not appear on his record of service but the family story is that it was because of an elevated temperature, something he had always had, but we will never know for sure. Bob did talk about his lack of mathematical skill preventing him from becoming a pilot, something he was keen to do, and this must have been part of the reason he was so desperate for his children to do well at school. Although the majority of pilots (and navigators and bomb aimers) were drawn from ex-grammar school and university volunteers, I recently met the son of a pilot whose father had a similar background to Bob, i.e., left school at 14 and completed a trade apprenticeship. 

28th July 1943
Having reapplied to join the RAF Bob was instructed to attend RAF Doncaster where he was assessed and interviewed again, this time by No. 1 A.C.S.B. He was successful and was "recommended for training as a Flight Engineer". He was instructed to continue in civil life until further notice.

2nd/3rd September 1943
Bob was instructed to return to RAF Doncaster for two day's assessment, which included a medical which he passed with 'medical category grade 1'. He was enlisted 'D.P.E.' (for the 'Duration of Present Emergency') and 'mustered' as ACH/F.Eng (Aircrafthand/Flight Engineer) with the rank of Aircraftsman Second Class (AC2) grade A (the lowest grade).
Having sworn his allegiance to King and Country he was issued with service number 1596172, placed on reserve and once again instructed to return to civil life until further notice.

With fellow members of the Grimsby Fire Brigade, some time before Jan 1944
All work and no play .......


A few weeks later he would have received a letter from the Air Ministry to welcome him into the R.A.F.

An earlier 'welcome to the R.A.F.' letter from the Air Ministry
 

17th January 1944
The call-up came in the New Year and he reported for five weeks basic training at No.3 A.C.R.C. (Aircrew Receiving Centre) at RAF Regent's Park in London. In the first few days he would have:
  • had a regulation hair cut
  • had a thorough dental check, at which time he lost most of his top teeth
  • received inoculations against diphtheria and typhoid - for some reason it seems he may have missed out on the smallpox inoculation normally given at this stage
  • received basic RAF kit and 'Service Dress' uniform, commonly referred to as "Best Blues", including the white cap insert, clearly visible later on his wedding pictures, that identified him as trainee aircrew.
He would have been instructed to mark every item of kit with his service number and be expected to keep every item spotlessly clean in readiness for regular inspection.

'Air diagram 1385' with instructions for inspections and the wearing of equipment.
Over the next few weeks he faced a rigorous daily routine of fatigues, inspections, training drills, lectures and assessments. I can't imagine Bob taking to this very well! As an AC2 (grade A), Trade Group V (Aircrafthand/Flight Engineer) his pay was 3 shillings per day plus sixpence per day war pay - considerably less than his pay as a fireman but he did not, of course, have to pay for his upkeep. He would collect his pay at the fortnightly pay parade.
The piece of kit that would have been the starkest reminder of the perilous nature of the task ahead was the pair of identity discs. Manufactured from fire-resistant material and with the airman's religion clearly punched between his service number and name, none of the recruits could have been in any doubt why they had to wear these once they were flying.

One of Bob's identity discs
.
Id. card, discs and service & pay books (see Chs. 26, 27 & 28: Appendices VI, VII & VIII)


26th February 1944
Having completed the first stage of his training Bob was then posted to No. 7 I.T.W. (Initial Training Wing) at RAF Newquay, in Cornwall. The purpose of this training was to 'lay a foundation of discipline, physical fitness and mental alertness' and provide a 'sound basic knowledge of the RAF', all explained in the pamphlet "You are going to be a Flight Engineer".



See Ch. 21: Appendix I


The I.T.W. syllabus included such things as:
  • aircraft recognition
  • air reconnaissance
  • armaments
  • engines
  • instruments
  • meteorology
  • navigation
  • principles of flight
  • signals
One of Bob's exercise book, dated Feb - March 1944
This exercise book contained only 38 pages but on the cover Bob has written "Signals, Aircraft Rec, Armaments, Mathematics" - there was clearly no time for much depth, but there are 9 pages of closely written notes on the Browning .303 Machine Gun. The mathematics is quite basic, though probably not for someone who had left school 11 years earlier aged 14, but there has obviously been some effort to make the problem-solving 'relevant'. For example:
  • percentages - '.....add 1.75% to airspeed for every 1000 feet of added altitude......'
  • moments - problems related to bomb weights and movement of crew fore and aft (I'm not sure how many navigators weighed 120 lb though!)
  • distance travelled, bomb load, fuel consumption, time, etc 
See Ch. 29: Appendix IX for some pages from this exercise book




Along with other trainees Bob would have been issued with his 'War Service uniform' ("Battledress") and, later in the course, with flying clothing, which was needed for training purposes. This included:
  • helmet, with oxygen and communication mask
  • goggles
  • flying suit
  • Mae West (life jacket)
  • parachute harness

With fellow trainees. Bob is 3rd from left, middle row.

Trainees were assessed throughout the course and examinations had to be passed prior to further posting. Bob successfully completed the course and his next posting was an attachment  to RAF Wrexham (from the 8th to the 15th April 1944) but it is not clear why, especially as RAF Wrexham was used for night fighter training.



Service record: note the entries dated 8th & 15th April
Bob married Vera Stephenson in St James Church, now Grimsby Minster, on the 19th April 1944, about a year after it had been badly damaged by a German bomb and 4 days after returning to Newquay from Wrexham.

Marriage notice in Grimsby Evening Telegraph, 1944


Bob and Vera were married at St James Church, Grimsby on 19th April 1944 - note the white cap insert

St James Church after an air raid, April 1943

May 1944 (exact date not known)
Having completed his I.T.W. training and attachment to RAF Wrexham Bob was posted to No. 5 S.o.T.T. (School of Technical Training) at RAF Locking near Weston-super-Mare where he carried out the first phase of his 'trade' training as a Flight Engineer. This phase consisted of ten weeks of 'preliminary' training on airframes, engines, carburettors, electrics, instruments, hydraulics and propellers. This was followed by one week's leave.

12th July 1944
He was posted to No. 4 S.of T.T. at RAF St Athan in Glamorgan, S. Wales to complete the second and third phases of his flight engineer training. Phase 2 consisted of 7 weeks of 'intermediate' training in engines, airframes, hydraulics, propellers, instruments and electrics, followed by one week's leave. Having completed this phase of the course Bob was reclassified on the 1st of September as Aircraftsman Second Class (AC2) grade B. His pay would have increased from 3 shillings a day to 5 shillings a day (from 15p to 25p).

Actual notes and diagrams from a trainee Flight Engineer (not Bob)
The final phase consisted of 7 weeks 'advanced' training on a specific service type aircraft and included a week at the factory of an aircraft manufacturer ('Makers Course') but there is no record of this in Bob's service record. This was followed by a week of written and oral exams.

13th November 1944
Having successfully completed the course and passed his exams Bob attended a 'passing out' parade where he was presented with his Flight Engineer's brevet and promoted to the rank of Sergeant, the minimum rank for aircrew. His pay was increased to 12 shillings (60p) a day. If Bob had achieved a mark of 70% or more in the exams then he would have been considered for a commission - his mark was 66.1%.

Sergeant Robert Jay, November 1944. Note the new F/E brevet and Sergeant's stripes
Confirmation stamp in Bob's Flying Log Book


25th November 1944
The final step in Bob's training involved a posting to 1669 Heavy Conversion Unit (H.C.U.) at RAF Langar on the Notts/Leicestershire border where he would be trained as part of a seven-man crew on a Lancaster bomber (see Ch. 2: 'The crew')


Normally the flight engineer was posted to the H.C.U. a couple of weeks before the established crew so that he could get some flight training in and Bob's Flying Log Book shows that he didn't fly with his pilot Bill Mallon, and presumably the rest of his crew, until the end of January.


He had a total of just 59 hours flying time, 36 hours daylight and 23 hours night flying, between mid-December and the end of February and only 35 hours of this were 'solo' flights with his crew. Pilots obviously had more flying hours in training, though nowhere near the number given in peacetime,and it is not surprising that losses were so high early in an operational tour





The training schedule involved:
  • Familiarisation with the aircraft
  • Circuits and landings
  • Bombing practice
  • Fighter affiliation
  • Cross country flying
all entered in the log book as a series of numbered exercises. These were often carried out with experienced instructors (normally crew who had completed an operational tour) and then repeated 'solo'.
Bob's role as Flight Engineer is summarised here:

 Whenever Bob climbed into the aircraft he would have with him his parachute and his emergency repair tool bag and before, during and after every flight he would have to complete a four page Flight Engineer Log.

Two of the four pages of the Flight Engineer's Log


The Lancaster Mk VII cockpit

Having successfully completed their H.C.U. training the crew were considered ready for operational duty. Bob was officially declared qualified as a Flight Engineer for the Lancaster Marks I and III with effect from 1st March 1945 and was immediately assigned to No. 72 Base which, as well as Langar, included the airfields RAF Bottesford and RAF Saltby.
Confirmation of qualification in Log Book


6th March 1945
Four of the seven in Bob's crew were from New Zealand so it was no surprise a few days later when they were posted to RAF Mepal in Cambridgeshire, the home of No. 75(NZ) Squadron,  part of No. 3 Group, Bomber Command. This was an RAF squadron formed from the 'New Zealand Squadron' in 1940 when the N.Z. government made their airmen and aircraft available to the RAF to help with the war effort. It was one of the larger, 3-flight squadrons which, between 1943 and 1944 had about 35 crews. By 1945 it seems that the squadron was practically 'double-manned', with two crews per aircraft, which would explain why Bob and his crew, who were assigned to 'B' Flight, flew in several different aircraft during their tour.

'B' Flight 75(NZ) Squadron, March 1945

75(NZ) Squadron, March 1945


R.A.F. Mepal, photographed by Dick Broadbent D.F.C. in 1943. Mepal is to the north and Sutton to the south.

Pilot Bill Mallon flew a '2nd dickie' operation the following evening, the 7th March, on a bombing raid on the German town of Dessau that virtually destroyed the town, just six weeks before it was taken by American troops. All new pilots flew their first operation with an experienced pilot and his crew, generally referred to as flying '2nd dickie', so that when they took their own crew on their first operation the pilot at least would have some idea of what to expect. It was not unknown for pilots to be killed on this '2nd dickey' operation but Bill made it back safely with Flight Lieutenant Sid (Buzz) Spilman and his crew at 0210 hours, despite what the O.R.B. described as a "short inconclusive encounter" with a night fighter and the loss of 18 Lancasters from other squadrons from Nos. 1, 3, 6 and 8 Group. The following day he was to take Bob and the rest of the crew on their first operation, a daylight raid on Datteln in the heavily defended industrial Ruhr Valley.






    Tuesday, 29 April 2014

    3a. Bob's operational sorties

    In his log book Bob entered all his 'war ops' in red ink. I had assumed that this was the norm until I had the opportunity to view other log books - some used no red ink at all and some used red ink for night time ops and black ink for those carried out in daylight.

    Bob's Flying Log Book for March 1945
    Here are the details of Bob's operational sorties and the aircraft in which he flew:
    • Friday, March 9th, in AA-L (HK562) - daylight raid on the Emscher-Lippe benzol plant near Datteln, part of the 'Oil Campaign' to deprive the Germans of fuel. 159 Lancasters took part, 19 from 75 Squadron, and one was lost (not from 75 Sq). In the air 5 hours 26 minutes.
    • Saturday, March 10th, in AA-L (HK562) - daylight raid on the Scholven-Buer synthetic oil plant in Gelsenkirchen, also in the Ruhr Valley and part of the 'Oil Campaign'. 155 Lancasters took part, 21 from 75 Squadron, and none was lost. In the air 4 hours 57 minutes.
    10th March 1945
    Immediately after the Gelsenkirchen operation Bob and the rest of Bill Mallon's crew were posted to RAF Feltwell, 20 miles to the east in Norfolk. Here they undertook training in the use of GH (or Gee-H), a radio navigation system that had been developed in late 1943 and was used to direct aircraft to the target.  They returned to Mepal on the 17th March and carried out one more GH exercise before returning to operations.While they were away, on the 14th March, Flight Lieutenant Eric Parsons and his crew were lost when AA-E was shot down attacking the Heinrich Hutte oil plants in Hattingen.
    On the 21st March, three days before their next operation, 75 Squadron lost three more crews in a raid on the railway and viaduct at Munster when AA-T, AA-R and JN-P were brought down. The pilots were F/L Jack Plummer (NZ), P/O Alfred Brown (NZ) and F/O Derek Barr (RAFVR) respectively.
    • Tuesday, March 27th, in AA-L (HK562) - daylight raid on the Sachsen benzol plant near Hamm in the Ruhr Valley. 150 Lancasters took part, 21 from 75 Squadron. None was lost but Bob's was hit by flak and he had to feather the port inner engine and return on just three engines. In the air 5 hours 40 minutes.

    HK562, in which Bob flew his first 3 operations. AA was one identifier used by 75(NZ) Squadron, the other was JN.


    • Thursday, March 29th, in AA-X (RF157) - daylight raid on the Hermann Goering benzol plant at Hallendorf in Salzgitter, in central Germany. 130 Lancasters took part, 21 from 75 Squadron, and there were no losses. In the air 6 hours 46 minutes.
    • Wednesday, April 4th, in AA-M (ME751)  - the day after Bob's 26th birthday he took part in a night raid on the Leuna synthetic oil plant and chemical works near Merseburg in eastern Germany, known as the 'most heavily defended industrial target in Europe'. Bob was a 'stand-in' flight engineer with a crew captained by Flight Lieutenant I. Taylor whose crew included 3 Australians and a Rhodesian. 327 Lancasters took part, 21 from 75 Squadron, and two were lost (not from 75 Sq). The pilot and bomb aimer of JN-D were burned when their de-icing tank was hit by flak and the flight engineer, Sgt. Douglas Williamson, became disorientated and baled out through the mid-under turret believing the aircraft was going down. The fire was extinguished and the aircraft returned to base. The flight engineer also survived to tell the tale, having successfully deployed his parachute. Flying time was 8 hours 23 minutes.
    • Monday, April 9th - in AA-Y (HK561) - night raid on the naval port of Kiel. The heavy cruiser 'Admiral Scheer' was sunk/capsized and the 'Admiral Hipper' and 'Emden' damaged beyond repair. The Deutsche Werke U-boat yard was also badly damaged. 591 Lancasters took part, 19 from 75 Squadron, and three were lost (not from 75 Sq). Flying time was 5 hours 43 minutes.

    The 'Admiral Scheer', capsized in Kiel harbour after the raid of April 9th, 1945

    • Saturday, April 14th, in AA-Y (HK561) - night raid on the marshalling yards and military barracks at Potsdam, 15 miles S.W. of Berlin. There was a 'stand-in' bomb aimer on Bob's aircraft, F/S O. Willetts. This was the first time since March 1944 that Bomber Command 4-engined aircraft had entered the Berlin 'defence zone' and was the last raid by a major Bomber Command force on a German city, just 3 weeks before V.E. Day. 500 Lancasters took part, 21 from 75 Squadron, and one was lost (not from 75 Sq). Flying time was 8 hours 29 minutes.
    The flight engineer on AA-T, Sgt Allan Sliman, was fatally wounded by a cannon shell when his aircraft was attacked by two JU88s at 15000 feet on the return flight. Allan Sliman was 39 and had been a professional footballer with Bristol City, Chesterfield and Chelmsford City before commencing training a few weeks after Bob in 1944. He arrived at Mepal on the 1st April 1945 and suffered his fatal injuries on his crew's first and only operational sortie.


    O.R.B. entry reporting the death of the flight engineer on AA-T (PB132)
    • Friday, April 20th, in NF981 (his log book has AA-D crossed out and replaced with JN-D)  - daylight raid on the oil storage depot and docks in Regensburg, in Bavaria, S.E. Germany. 100 Lancasters took part, 20 from 75 Squadron, and one was lost (not from 75 Sq). Flying time was 7 hours 21 minutes.
    The 20 aircraft of 75(NZ) Squadron en route for Regensburg, 20th April 1945 (© Mary Morris, daughter of F/O Maurice Thorogood, navigator with F/L Laurence McKenna's crew). Which is Bob's aircraft?
     
    On Sunday, April 22nd the squadron lost yet another Flight Engineer when AA-T (NF935), piloted by S/L J. Parker, was struck by flak at 17500 feet over Wilhemshaven returning from a daylight raid on Bremen. The aircraft returned safely but Sgt. Roy Clark of the RAFVR lost his life.
    • Tuesday, April 24th, in AA-W (RF127) - Bob's final 'war op', and 75 Squadron's final operational mission, was a daylight raid on the marshalling yards at Bad Oldesloe, between Hamburg and Kiel in northern Germany. 110 Lancasters took part, 21 from 75 Squadron, and none was lost. Flying time was 5 hours 34 minutes.
    • Tuesday, May 1st, in AA-W (RF127) - a week before V. E. Day Bob's crew was one of 21 from 75 Squadron that dropped food supplies on Delft, near The Hague in the Netherlands - probably on Ypenburg airfield. 'Operation Manna' and the U.S. 'Operation Chowhound' were organised to relieve the famine (Hongerwinter) that had developed over the winter of 1944-45 in the German occupied areas of the Netherlands. A ceasefire had been arranged with the local German commander to facilitate this and more than 3000 Lancasters from Groups 1, 3 and 8 took part in late April and early May. Bob described grateful Dutch people waving below the aircraft as they made their low-level drops (120-150 metres), an experience recorded by several aircrews in 75 Squadron's Operation Record Book (O.R.B.). (see below)

      One page of 75 Squadron's O.R.B. for 1st May 1945
       
    The details of Bob's training and operations were gleaned from his Record of Service (see Appendix IV), his Flying Log Book (see Appendix V), the squadron's Operations Record Books (see Appendix II) and several websites containing a wealth of information (see Appendix IX)
    Bob's 'war ops' March & April 1945 and 'Operation Manna' May 1945

    Tuesday, 8th May 1945 - V.E. Day, the end of the war in Europe! It was to be almost a year before Bob would be able to return to his life in Grimsby. 
    25th April - 6th July 1945 - Bob continued with cross country and army co-operation exercises, circuits and landings, fighter affiliation and bombing and air-sea firing practice in and around Britain. He also took part in a 'Bullseye' exercise to southern France, an exercise designed to simulate a night time operation, and three so-called 'Baedeker' operations over the Ruhr Valley and northern Germany. These operations were simply to 'view the effects of the bombing offensive' and on at least one occasion a passenger was carried. He was involved in one 'Post-mortem' operation which involved a flight over Germany to test captured radar equipment. These peace-time flights over Germany were in AA-W (RF127), AA-P (NF935) and AA-L (HK576) and after his last flight on 6th July his flying days were over. He had completed approximately 175 hours of flying, 84 of them operational.


    75 Squadron Pilots and Flight Engineers, May 1945. Bob is 2nd from right, back row. This picture is on display at Witchford.

    Bob completed nine operational sorties and survived the war. There is no doubt the risks to aircrew at this late stage were much reduced, with the Luftwaffe starved of fuel and supplies severely disrupted. However, the dangers from flak (see Appendix III), fighters and accidents were ever-present and it has been estimated that the risk of being shot down during your first five operations was about ten times greater than in later operations. During the two months that Bob was operational 4 aircraft from 75(NZ) Squadron were shot down, 3 flight engineers were lost (2 killed and one captured) and a total of over 500 aircraft from Bomber Command as a whole were lost. Over the whole conflict 75(NZ) Squadron suffered amongst the highest losses with 193 aircraft and well over 1000 aircrew killed.

    A Lancaster crew returns from an operation over Germany

    Had Bob been successful in his attempts to enlist in September 1942 he would have started his operational duty around May 1944. The worst year for Bomber Command casualties was 1944 and, according to the Rob Davis website, the two months with the highest number of aircraft lost were June and July 1944. Bob would have been expected to complete a tour of 30 operational sorties yet the chance of surviving such a tour at this stage of the war has been estimated as worse than 1 in 3. We should be grateful to whoever decided not to recommend him for Air Crew duties first time round.
    Although Bob had been keen to take the fight to Nazi Germany he had serious reservations after the war about the 'Area Bombing' strategy introduced early in 1942. The purpose of Area Bombing had been laid out in a British Air Staff paper dated 23rd September 1941


    "The ultimate aim of an attack on a town area is to break the morale of the population which occupies it. To ensure this, we must achieve two things: first, we must make the town physically uninhabitable and, secondly, we must make the people conscious of constant personal danger. The immediate aim, is therefore, twofold, namely, to produce (i) destruction and (ii) fear of death."



    I suspect Bob would have taken some consolation from the fact that all of his operational sorties involved military targets, although he was well aware of the devastating effect of any bombing on the civilian population.